广泛期小细胞肺癌(SCLC)患者的标准治疗方法

广泛期SCLC​患者的标准治疗方法包括:

联合化疗

广泛期(ED)SCLC患者的化疗常为铂类与依托泊苷两药联合治疗,所用剂量与至少中度毒性反应相关(与局限期[LD]SCLC相似)[1]。顺铂具有明显毒性反应,需水化,水化对于心血管疾病的患者而言较为困难。卡铂也是SCLC治疗常用药物,需根据肾功能决定剂量,非血液学毒性反应较少。

其他方案似乎能达到相似的生存结果,但相关研究及应用均较少。

表2. 广泛期小细胞肺癌的联合化疗
表2. 广泛期小细胞肺癌的联合化疗
标准治疗 依托泊苷+顺铂
依托泊苷+卡铂
其他方案 顺铂+伊立替康
异环磷酰胺+顺铂+依托泊苷
环磷酰胺+阿霉素+依托泊苷
联合化疗加胸部放疗相对于单独化疗似乎并不增加广泛期 SCLC患者的生存获益。
环磷酰胺+依托泊苷+长春新碱
环磷酰胺+阿霉素+长春新碱

当前治疗计划所用的剂量与方案对广泛期患者总缓解率在50%-80%,完全缓解率在0%-30%[2][3]。[ 证据等级:1iiA​]

小细胞肺癌的颅内转移灶对化疗的反应可能与其他器官转移一样好[4][5]

证据(治疗持续时间):

证据(剂量强化):

放疗

在广泛期 SCLC治疗中,对于化疗不太可能立即缓解症状的转移灶(尤其是脑、硬膜外与骨转移灶)放疗仍是标准治疗。脑转移使用全脑照射治疗。

广泛期患者如化疗后缓解,可考虑行PCI。

存在

处于临床评估阶段的治疗方法

处于临床评估阶段的广泛期 SCLC患者的治疗方法包括:

新药方案。

变换药物剂量与方案。

目前开展的临床试验

现招募 广泛期小细胞肺癌​患者的美国临床研究请参见美国NCI癌症临床研究列表,可根据部位、药物、干预或其他标准进行筛选。

NCI网站提供关于临床试验的基本信息。 

参考文献

1. Okamoto H, Watanabe K, Kunikane H, et al.: Randomised phase III trial of carboplatin plus etoposide vs split doses of cisplatin plus etoposide in elderly or poor-risk patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: JCOG 9702. Br J Cancer 97 (2): 162-9, 2007.[PUBMED Abstract]

2. Roth BJ, Johnson DH, Einhorn LH, et al.: Randomized study of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine versus etoposide and cisplatin versus alternation of these two regimens in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial of the Southeastern Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 10 (2): 282-91, 1992.[PUBMED Abstract]

3. Pujol JL, Carestia L, Daurès JP: Is there a case for cisplatin in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer? A meta-analysis of randomized trials of a cisplatin-containing regimen versus a regimen without this alkylating agent. Br J Cancer 83 (1): 8-15, 2000.[PUBMED Abstract]

4. Twelves CJ, Souhami RL, Harper PG, et al.: The response of cerebral metastases in small cell lung cancer to systemic chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 61 (1): 147-50, 1990.[PUBMED Abstract]

5. Nugent JL, Bunn PA Jr, Matthews MJ, et al.: CNS metastases in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma: increasing frequency and changing pattern with lengthening survival. Cancer 44 (5): 1885-93, 1979.[PUBMED Abstract]

6. Amarasena IU, Walters JA, Wood-Baker R, et al.: Platinum versus non-platinum chemotherapy regimens for small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD006849, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]

7. Controlled trial of twelve versus six courses of chemotherapy in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer. Report to the Medical Research Council by its Lung Cancer Working Party. Br J Cancer 59 (4): 584-90, 1989.[PUBMED Abstract]

8. Noda K, Nishiwaki Y, Kawahara M, et al.: Irinotecan plus cisplatin compared with etoposide plus cisplatin for extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 346 (2): 85-91, 2002.[PUBMED Abstract]

9. Hanna N, Bunn PA Jr, Langer C, et al.: Randomized phase III trial comparing irinotecan/cisplatin with etoposide/cisplatin in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage disease small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 24 (13): 2038-43, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]

10. Lara PN Jr, Natale R, Crowley J, et al.: Phase III trial of irinotecan/cisplatin compared with etoposide/cisplatin in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: clinical and pharmacogenomic results from SWOG S0124. J Clin Oncol 27 (15): 2530-5, 2009.[PUBMED Abstract]

11. Schmittel A, Sebastian M, Fischer von Weikersthal L, et al.: A German multicenter, randomized phase III trial comparing irinotecan-carboplatin with etoposide-carboplatin as first-line therapy for extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 22 (8): 1798-804, 2011.[PUBMED Abstract]

12. Zatloukal P, Cardenal F, Szczesna A, et al.: A multicenter international randomized phase III study comparing cisplatin in combination with irinotecan or etoposide in previously untreated small-cell lung cancer patients with extensive disease. Ann Oncol 21 (9): 1810-6, 2010.[PUBMED Abstract]

13. Jiang J, Liang X, Zhou X, et al.: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing irinotecan/platinum with etoposide/platinum in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 5 (6): 867-73, 2010.[PUBMED Abstract]

14. Guo S, Liang Y, Zhou Q: Complement and correction for meta-analysis of patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer managed with irinotecan/cisplatin versus etoposide/cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy. J Thorac Oncol 6 (2): 406-8; author reply 408, 2011.[PUBMED Abstract]

15. Eckardt JR, von Pawel J, Papai Z, et al.: Open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase III study comparing oral topotecan/cisplatin versus etoposide/cisplatin as treatment for chemotherapy-naive patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 24 (13): 2044-51, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]

16. Mavroudis D, Papadakis E, Veslemes M, et al.: A multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing paclitaxel-cisplatin-etoposide versus cisplatin-etoposide as first-line treatment in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 12 (4): 463-70, 2001.[PUBMED Abstract]

17. Niell HB, Herndon JE 2nd, Miller AA, et al.: Randomized phase III intergroup trial of etoposide and cisplatin with or without paclitaxel and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9732. J Clin Oncol 23 (16): 3752-9, 2005.[PUBMED Abstract]

18. Spiro SG, Souhami RL, Geddes DM, et al.: Duration of chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer: a Cancer Research Campaign trial. Br J Cancer 59 (4): 578-83, 1989.[PUBMED Abstract]

19. Bleehen NM, Girling DJ, Machin D, et al.: A randomised trial of three or six courses of etoposide cyclophosphamide methotrexate and vincristine or six courses of etoposide and ifosfamide in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). I: Survival and prognostic factors. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Br J Cancer 68 (6): 1150-6, 1993.[PUBMED Abstract]

20. Giaccone G, Dalesio O, McVie GJ, et al.: Maintenance chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer: long-term results of a randomized trial. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 11 (7): 1230-40, 1993.[PUBMED Abstract]

21. Sculier JP, Paesmans M, Bureau G, et al.: Randomized trial comparing induction chemotherapy versus induction chemotherapy followed by maintenance chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer. European Lung Cancer Working Party. J Clin Oncol 14 (8): 2337-44, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]

22. Schiller JH, Adak S, Cella D, et al.: Topotecan versus observation after cisplatin plus etoposide in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: E7593--a phase III trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 19 (8): 2114-22, 2001.[PUBMED Abstract]

23. Bozcuk H, Artac M, Ozdogan M, et al.: Does maintenance/consolidation chemotherapy have a role in the management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)? A metaanalysis of the published controlled trials. Cancer 104 (12): 2650-7, 2005.[PUBMED Abstract]

24. Cohen MH, Creaven PJ, Fossieck BE Jr, et al.: Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 61 (3): 349-54, 1977 May-Jun.[PUBMED Abstract]

25. Arriagada R, Le Chevalier T, Pignon JP, et al.: Initial chemotherapeutic doses and survival in patients with limited small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 329 (25): 1848-52, 1993.[PUBMED Abstract]

26. Fukuoka M, Masuda N, Negoro S, et al.: CODE chemotherapy with and without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 75 (2): 306-9, 1997.[PUBMED Abstract]

27. Woll PJ, Hodgetts J, Lomax L, et al.: Can cytotoxic dose-intensity be increased by using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor? A randomized controlled trial of lenograstim in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 13 (3): 652-9, 1995.[PUBMED Abstract]

28. Steward WP, von Pawel J, Gatzemeier U, et al.: Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and dose intensification of V-ICE chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer: a prospective randomized study of 300 patients. J Clin Oncol 16 (2): 642-50, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]

29. Thatcher N, Girling DJ, Hopwood P, et al.: Improving survival without reducing quality of life in small-cell lung cancer patients by increasing the dose-intensity of chemotherapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support: results of a British Medical Research Council Multicenter Randomized Trial. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. J Clin Oncol 18 (2): 395-404, 2000.[PUBMED Abstract]

30. James LE, Gower NH, Rudd RM, et al.: A randomised trial of low-dose/high-frequency chemotherapy as palliative treatment of poor-prognosis small-cell lung cancer: a Cancer research Campaign trial. Br J Cancer 73 (12): 1563-8, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]

31. Pujol JL, Douillard JY, Rivière A, et al.: Dose-intensity of a four-drug chemotherapy regimen with or without recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter randomized phase III study. J Clin Oncol 15 (5): 2082-9, 1997.[PUBMED Abstract]

32. Ardizzoni A, Tjan-Heijnen VC, Postmus PE, et al.: Standard versus intensified chemotherapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support in small-cell lung cancer: a prospective European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Lung Cancer Group Phase III Trial-08923. J Clin Oncol 20 (19): 3947-55, 2002.[PUBMED Abstract]

33. Lorigan P, Woll PJ, O'Brien ME, et al.: Randomized phase III trial of dose-dense chemotherapy supported by whole-blood hematopoietic progenitors in better-prognosis small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (9): 666-74, 2005.[PUBMED Abstract]

34. Buchholz E, Manegold C, Pilz L, et al.: Standard versus dose-intensified chemotherapy with sequential reinfusion of hematopoietic progenitor cells in small cell lung cancer patients with favorable prognosis. J Thorac Oncol 2 (1): 51-8, 2007.[PUBMED Abstract]

35. Girling DJ: Comparison of oral etoposide and standard intravenous multidrug chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer: a stopped multicentre randomised trial. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Lancet 348 (9027): 563-6, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]

36. Murray N, Grafton C, Shah A, et al.: Abbreviated treatment for elderly, infirm, or noncompliant patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 16 (10): 3323-8, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]

37. Westeel V, Murray N, Gelmon K, et al.: New combination of the old drugs for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study of the PAVE regimen. J Clin Oncol 16 (5): 1940-7, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]

38. Earl HM, Rudd RM, Spiro SG, et al.: A randomised trial of planned versus as required chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer: a Cancer Research Campaign trial. Br J Cancer 64 (3): 566-72, 1991.[PUBMED Abstract]

39. Randomised trial of four-drug vs less intensive two-drug chemotherapy in the palliative treatment of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and poor prognosis. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Br J Cancer 73 (3): 406-13, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]

40. Souhami RL, Spiro SG, Rudd RM, et al.: Five-day oral etoposide treatment for advanced small-cell lung cancer: randomized comparison with intravenous chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (8): 577-80, 1997.[PUBMED Abstract]

41. Sekine I, Yamamoto N, Kunitoh H, et al.: Treatment of small cell lung cancer in the elderly based on a critical literature review of clinical trials. Cancer Treat Rev 30 (4): 359-68, 2004.[PUBMED Abstract]

42. Slotman B, Faivre-Finn C, Kramer G, et al.: Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 357 (7): 664-72, 2007.[PUBMED Abstract]

上一页   下一页
译文由 中国国家癌症中心提供
本站由 中国医学科学院医学信息研究所创办并维护 未经许可禁止转载或建立镜像